Italy System-Piedment School (Piedment School)

Even though Northern Italy Piedment polition affiliation had passed to different leaders several times, but Turin had always been the most prosperous urban center. From 1650-1754, Turin had turned into the period of violin production, was led by Enrico Catenar (ca. 1620-1701) (Gioffredo Cappa, ca. 1653-1717) , (Fabrizio Senta, ca. 1630 - ca. 1700) , (Spirito Sorsana, ca. 1714-ca. 1740) and (Giovanni Francesco Celoniati, 1676-ca. 1754) . Piedment school used special graver to shape more delicate violins, for example, the F hole and the scroll have to be symmetry with each others. This was one of the unique features of the German.

In addition to a few left violin makes during that time, including Nicola Giogi, therefore, they had to face the crisis of it. Until the appearance of Curcio, he provided assistance to the poor Giovanni Batista Guadagnini, and managed him to stay in Turin permanently. This had caused another arise of violin production in Piedment. Francesco Guadagnini (1863-1948) and Paolo Guadagnini (1908-1945) , the future generations of Giovanni Batista Guadagnini, they decided to continue the family business into 1950s, as they made an important historical heritage and witness for Turin.

In 1800, there were only two luthier studios in Turin: one owned by Guadagnini and the other by French luthier Nicolas Lete. The Lete-Pillement operation manufactured French-style violins due to commercial considerations. After the studio closed in 1820, Turin’s violin making developments were led by Giovanni Francesco Pressenda (1777-1854) and Joseph Calot (1753-1828) , and their pupils Alessandeo D’espini (1782-1855) and Giuseppe Roca (1807-1865) . After 1865, there was a gap in Turin’s history of violin making until the appearance of Gioffredo Benedetto Rinaldi (1850-1888) and Antonio Guadagnini (1817-1900) , who gave rise to the contemporary Turin school which continued its tradition even in the 20th century.